What is OSI Model and its Layers in Communication System

OSI Model - Open System Interconnection Model

The Open Systems Interconnection model popularly known as OSI model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection effort at the International Organization for Standardization. It is a way of sub-dividing a communications system into smaller parts called layers. A layer is a collection of similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. On each layer, an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below

OSI Model consists of Seven Layers which are given below
OSI Model
Data unitLayerFunction
Data7. ApplicationNetwork process to application
6. PresentationData representation, encryption and decryption, convert machine dependent data to machine independent data
5. SessionInterhost communication
Segments4. TransportEnd-to-end connections and reliability, flow control
Packet3. NetworkPath determination and logical addressing
Frame2. Data LinkPhysical addressing
Bit1. PhysicalMedia, signal and binary transmission

Physical Layer

The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a transmission medium, such as a copper or optical cable. This includes the layout of pins, voltages, cable specifications, hubs, repeaters, network adapters, host bus adapters etc

Data Link Layer

The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. Originally, this layer was intended for point-to-point and point-to-multi-point media, characteristic of wide area media in the telephone system. Data Link Layer responsible for WAN Protocol architecture, IEEE 802 LAN architecture etc

Network Layer

The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source host on one network to a destination host on a different network, while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer in contrast to the data link layer which connects hosts within the same network. Routers operate at this layer—sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible

Transport Layer

The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers. The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control, segmentation/desegmentation, and error control. Some protocols are state and connection oriented

Session Layer

The Session Layer controls the dialogues, connections between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. It provides for full-duplex, half-duplex, or simplex operation, and establishes checkpointing, adjournment, termination, and restart procedures. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions, which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol, and also for session checkpointing and recovery, which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls

Presentation Layer

The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack

Application Layer

The Application Layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. Some examples of application layer implementations include:
On OSI stack:

1. FTAM File Transfer and Access Management Protocol
2. X.400 Mail
3. Common management information protocol (CMIP on TCP/IP stack: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP),
1. File Transfer Protocol (FTP),
2. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
3. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

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